Category Archives: Письмо

Английские наречия ONLY, EVER, HARDLY, ALMOST, MERELY, QUITE – куда правильно ставить в предложении (небольшой тест)

Привет, сейчас мы с вами освежим правила правильного размещения наречий EVER, ONLY, HARDLY, ALMOST, QUITE, RATHER и некоторых других. В принципе, в случае с этими наречиями верховным судьей является ваш здравый смысл. Общее правило таково: наречие из вышеперечисленных должно ставиться непосредственно перед словом или фразой, к которому они относятся.

В качестве упражнения давайте пройдем маленький тест. Просто исправьте неточности в следующих 20 предложениях – в каждом предложении наречие (или какое-то другое слово) находится не на своем месте.

  1. I only paid five dollars.
  2. I have only done six problems.
  3. The clothing business is only profitable in large towns.
  4. The school is only open in the evening.
  5. I only need ten minutes in which to do it.
  6. He had almost climbed to the top when the ladder broke.
  7. I never expect to see the like again.
  8. A black base-ball player’s suit was found.
  9. Do you ever remember to have seen the man before?
  10. The building was trimmed with granite carved corners.
  11. People ceased to wonder gradually.
  12. The captain only escaped by hiding in a ditch.
  13. I never wish to think of it again.
  14. On the trip in that direction he almost went to Philadelphia.
  15. Acetylene lamps are only used now in the country.
  16. He only spoke of history, not of art.
  17. I know hardly what to say.
  18. I was merely talking of grammar, not of English literature.
  19. The girls were nearly dressed in the same color.
  20. He merely wanted to see you.

Теперь давайте рассмотрим все эти предложения и выясним, сделали ли вы в каком-то из них ошибку, или все у нас идеально:).

  1. I only paid five dollars. Правильно:
    I paid only five dollars.
  2. I have only done six problems.
    Правильно: I have done only six problems.
  3. The clothing business is only profitable in large towns.
    Правильно: The clothing business is profitable only in large towns.
  4. The school is only open in the evening. Правильно:
    The school is open only in the evening.
  5. I only need ten minutes in which to do it. Правильно:
    I need only ten minutes in which to do it.
  6. He had almost climbed to the top when the ladder broke. Правильно:
    He had climbed almost to the top when the ladder broke.
  7. I never expect to see the like again. Правильно:
    I expect never to see the like again.
  8. A black base-ball player’s suit was found. Правильно:
    A base-ball player’s black suit was found.
  9. Do you ever remember to have seen the man before? Правильно:
    Do you remember to have ever seen the man before?
  10. The building was trimmed with granite carved corners. Правильно:
    The building was trimmed with carved granite corners.
  11. People ceased to wonder gradually. Правильно:
    People gradually ceased to wonder.
  12. The captain only escaped by hiding in a ditch. Правильно:
    The captain escaped only by hiding in a ditch.
  13. I never wish to think of it again. Правильно:
    I wish never to think of it again.
  14. On the trip in that direction he almost went to Philadelphia. Правильно: On the trip in that direction he went
    almost to Philadelphia.
  15. Acetylene lamps are only used now in the country. Правильно:
    Acetylene lamps are used only in the country now.
  16. He only spoke of history, not of art. Правильно:
    He spoke only of history, not of art.
  17. I know hardly what to say. Правильно:
    I hardly know what to say.
  18. I was merely talking of grammar, not of English literature. Правильно:
    I was talking merely of grammar, not of English literature.
  19. The girls were nearly dressed in the same color. Правильно:
    The girls were dressed in nearly the same color.
  20. He merely wanted to see you. Правильно:
    He wanted merely to see you.

Если вы хотите закрепить свои знания и умения в правильном размещении английских местоимений в предложении, посмотрите мое видео на эту же тему:

FAST или QUICK – в чем разница?

fast quick разница

Привет, дорогой читатель, давайте поговорим сегодня о разнице между английскими прилагательными (а по совместительству иногда и наречиями) FAST и QUICK, а заодно упомянем об их “братьях” – SPEEDY, BRISK, FLEET, RAPID, EXPEDITIOUS.

Когда я просматривал материалы для этой статьи, то понял следующее: чем глубже ты вникаешь в значения и разные оттенки значений этих слов, тем большее количество вопросов возникает. Поэтому давайте вначале рассмотрим разницу между FAST и QUICK “по-простому”, стандартно, “не заморачиваясь”, а потом, возможно, копнем глубже, если будут силы и желание.

Итак, на русский язык и FAST и QUICK переводятся как “быстрый” или “быстро” (в зависимости от части речи). Сразу давайте успокоимся: не нужно бояться перепутать и употребить fast вместо quick и наоборот. Эти прилагательные очень близки по значению, и вас поймут без проблем. Конечно, на тестах типа IELTS, TOEFL и других за неточности в употреблении вам баллов, конечно, не добавят, но и супер строго не накажут. На письме подумать о FAST и QUICK проще, так как мы имеем больше времени на размышления. И все же, повторюсь: не нужно бояться сказать или написать неправильно! Вы потратите гораздо больше энергии на контроль своей грамматики и, как результат, ваша речь будет звучать натянутой и неестественной, при чем ошибиться вы скорее всего таки ошибетесь. Просто со временем, по ходу вашей практики, вы будете говорить все более “правильно”, если будете много читать и слушать на английском.

ОК, переходим к основной “технической” разнице! (Помните – здесь есть масса исключений!)

FAST в основном передает физическую скорость перемещения, изменения, движения. Например: This is a fast car.

QUICK в основном передает малый отрезок времени, за который происходит процесс или явление. Например: He gave a quick answer.

То есть, ответ (answer) не движется быстро, а занимает малый промежуток времени. А машина (car) перемещается быстро в пространстве, а не занимает малый отрезок времени.

Это самое главное отличие, которого вам как начинающему может быть в принципе достаточно. Если ограничиться объяснением “для маленьких”, то можно статью закончить. Однако, давайте немного порассуждаем еще.


Рассмотрим несколько значений прилагательного FAST (из thefreedictionary.com)

1. Acting, moving, or capable of acting or moving quickly; swift.

Действующий, движущийся или способный действовать или двигаться быстро

2/a. Accomplished in relatively little time: a fast visit

Завершенный за относительно короткое время: fast visit.

2/b. Acquired quickly with little effort and sometimes unscrupulously: made a fast buck scalping tickets

обретенный быстро с малыми усилиями и иногда недобросовестно:

made a fast buck scalping tickets – заработал “быстрые/легкие” деньги перепродавая билеты

3. Quick to understand or learn; mentally agile: a class for faster students

Быстро понимающий или обучаемый, умственно активный: a class for the faster students – класс для более развитых/умных/способных учеников

4. Indicating a time somewhat ahead of the actual time: The clock is fast

Показывающий время немного быстрее реального времени (о часах)

5. Allowing rapid movement or action: a fast running track.

Позволяющий быстрое передвижение по своей поверхности: трек для быстрого бега

6. Designed for a compatible with a short exposure time: fast film

Предназначенный для быстрой экспозиции: пленка с быстрой экспозицией

7/a. Disposed to dissipation, wild: ran with a fast crowd.

Склонный к распаду, дикий: бежал с дикой толпой

7/b. Flouting conventional moral standards; sexually promiscuous.

Игнорирующий принятые моральные устои, сексуально распущенный

8. Resistant, as to destruction or fading: fast colours.

Устойчивый к разрушению или увяданию: стойкие цвета.

9. Firmly fixed or fastened: a fast grip

Надежно закрепленный: прочный хват

10. Fixed firmly in place; secure: shutters that are fast against the rain

Надежно закрепленный на своем месте: ставни, не пропускающие дождь

11. Lasting; permanent: fast rules and regulations.

Длительный, постоянный: постоянные правила и положения.

12. Deep, sound: in a fast sleep.

Крепкий, глубокий: крепкий глубокий сон.


А теперь рассмотрим основные значения английского прилагательного QUICK

1. (of an action, movement, etc) performed or occuring during a comparatively short time: a quick move

(о действии, движении) происходящий или выполняемый в течение краткого периода времени: быстрое движение

2. lasting a comparatively short time; brief: a quick flight

длящийся относительно короткое время: быстрый перелет

3. accomplishing something in a time that is shorter than normal: a quick worker

выполняющий что-либо за период времени, который короче обычного: проворный работник

4. characterised by the rapidity of movement; swift or fast: a quick walker

характеризуемый быстротой движения: быстрый ходок

5. immediate or prompt: a quick reply

очень быстрый, незамедлительный: быстрый (немедленный) ответ

6. (postpositive) eager or ready to perform (an action): quick to critisize.

охотно делающий какое-то действие, склонный: быстр на критику

7. responsive to stimulation; perceptive or alert; lively: a quick eye.

восприимчивый к стимуляции, быстро реагирующий: быстрый (зоркий) глаз

8. eager or enthusiastic for learning: a quick intelligence.

желающий учиться, легко обучаемый: быстрый (жадный) разум

9. easily excited or aroused: a quick temper

легко и быстро возбудимый: горячий темперамент

10. skilfully swift or nimble in one’s movements or actions; deft: quick fingers
искусно быстрый и ловкий в движениях: быстрые пальцы
11/a. (archaic) alive; living
(устаревшее) живой
11/b. (as noun) living people (esp in the phrase “the quick and the dead”)
(в качестве существительного) живые люди (особенно во фразе “живые и мертвые”)
12. (archaic or dialect) lively or eager: a quick dog
(устаревшее или диалект) шустрый, подвижный: шустрая собака
13. (of a fire) burning briskly
(об огне) быстро горящий
14. (botany) composed of living plants: a quick hedge
(ботаника) состоящий из живых растений: живая изгородь
15. dialect (of sand) lacking firmness through being wet
диалект (о песке) недостаточно устойчивый из-за влаги
16. (Gynaecology and Obsterics) quick with child: pregnant
(гинекология) беременный

Rhythm in prose – how to make your writing sing and vibrate

rhythm in prose for creative writing and tests

Hi, dear friends, in this short article let me briefly outline the concept of rhythm in writing, specifically in prose, whether it be creative writing or formal one for IELTS, TOEFL, SAT, GMAT and other tests. I understand that you probably have not ever pondered over the notion of rhythm in prose; we are all aware of it in verse, and yet rhythm is one of intrinsic inherent features of any kind of a written word.

To begin, let me warn you that the creativity of your literary endeavour may be evinced in the environment of freedom and non-dependence upon any academic constrains which are an essential element of English tests. That said, in IELTS writing you will be punished for the nfoldment of your creative genius; the graders are themselves benevolent, and still they are trained to assess your writing in accordance with exact prescribed rules – and reaaly, how could it be otherwise? Imagine millions of applicants writing for the tests every year, each boasting his singular talent and revealing his potential in his own way – how you can check and evaluate their writings then? Sure, there must be set rigid criteria for formal writing which will allow applicants to steer their course within the corridor of prescribed limitations.

Thus, firstly and foremostly, we will discuss now rhythm in prose for creative writing, and still, please remember that you can utilise the power or diction, melody and rhythm in your formal writing and surely add some points to your score.

So, let us look at the excerpt from Jule Verne’s “Around the world in eighty days” in the immaculate translation by Jacqueline Rogers – these are the first two paragraphs of the first chapter:


 

Mr. Phileas Fogg lived, in 1872, at No. 7, Saville Row, Burlington Gardens, the house in which Sheridan died in 1814. He was one of the most noticeable members of the Reform Club, though he seemed always to avoid attracting attention; an enigmatical personage, about whom little was known, except that he was a polished man of the world. People said that he resembled Byron—at least that his head was Byronic; but he was a bearded, tranquil Byron, who might live on a thousand years without growing old.

Certainly an Englishman, it was more doubtful whether Phileas Fogg was a Londoner. He was never seen on ‘Change, nor at the Bank, nor in the counting-rooms of the ‘City”; no ships ever came into London docks of which he was the owner; he had no public employment; he had never been entered at any of the Inns of Court, either at the Temple, or Lincoln’s Inn, or Gray’s Inn; nor had his voice ever resounded in the Court of Chancery, or in the Exchequer, or the Queen’s Bench, or the Ecclesiastical Courts. He certainly was not a manufacturer; nor was he a merchant or a gentleman farmer. His name was strange to the scientific and learned societies, and he never was known to take part in the sage deliberations of the Royal Institution or the London Institution, the Artisan’s Association, or the Institution of Arts and Sciences. He belonged, in fact, to none of the numerous societies which swarm in the English capital, from the Harmonic to that of the Entomologists, founded mainly for the purpose of abolishing pernicious insects.


Now, read this passage to yourself, either in a low voice, or completely to yourself. You will feel the beat. It is not that every second or third syllable bears a stress upon itself; in this case the scale of rhythm is broader, richer; you feel an invisible metronome ticking at regular inervals, these intervals being sumptuous, substantial, broad rather than narrow. So, to feel the rhythm of such prose, we can read the passage several times, each time immersing ourselves still deeper into the tranquil liquid of the genuine language.

I should admit that maybe for some of you this sensation of rhythm will not emerge at once in so tangible a form. I just want to remind you that rhythm exists in prose as well, and perhars it is evem more subtle, more exquisite and gentle than in verse, for verse is so common to us for its beat that it takes little effort on the part of the reader to grasp it; prose, conversely, veils its meter into intricate and quiete flow of sentences.

We all differ in our perception of prose rhythm. Some readers dote upon Earnest Hemingway of James Joyce; I personally love Artur Conan Doyle, Samuel Richardson and Jule Verne (the latter in translation, of course, so we should speak about the genius of the translator in this case).

What is your favourite pulsation? It can be any style and any author. I beg you to deliberate yourself from the mass-orientation shaped by critics. Whatever it is you are enjoying, it is completely yours for the simple reason that it resonates with your inner being; it vibrates in harmony with your personal radiation. Thus, you can feel the rhythm in any book of prose. Once you discover the pulse, you will search for it for the rest of your life. Some people say that the pleasure of rhythmical reading is one of the highest aesthetic indulgencies in our life. You simply feel the music in the text, whether it is a classical composition that is sounding in your mind, or some jazz or modern vibes – truly it is limitless.

Now, I venture to recommend you not only to enjoy the beat in the written word, but also to benefit from its immense power while writing for the tests of English. Yep, I understand that in order to accomplish the goal of a rhythmical, smoothly flowing composition you need to have a high level of language mastery, and this prerequisite may discourage you a trifle. In this case, I sincerely state that you are unique in your writing regardless of your level; rhythm can add to your compositions always and everywhere, just pluck up the courage to endeavour. You are much more talented than you think, and truly a fuller comprehension of your own talent is going to enrich your writing. I am a non-native speaker myself, so I have the choice of either sitting and complaining about my origin or just take the bull by the horns and whip up a short article on this web-site. Undoubtedly, this text swarms with inconsistencies, as well as syntactical and semantical slips. So what of that? If I abstain from writing, I doom myself to keeping a low profile and by no means boosting my language skills. If you feel that inferiority, simply follow my example. Just sing to yourself the creation of yours while writing, and miracles will emerge.

Be yours brilliant English!

P.S. Should you need assistance in IELTS, TOEFL, SAT, GMAT, ACT …  preparation, feel free to visit my web-site: www.onlinetutor.top and become my dear student))

 

 

EVERY или EACH – основная разница

Здравствуйте, друзья, сегодня у нас на рассмотрении интересный грамматический и синтаксический случай: когда лучше употреблять местоимение EVERY, а когда EACH? Мы частенько не задумываемся об этом, а ведь иногда такие примитивные на первый взгляд вопросы могут  помешать нам красиво говорить или писать. Я сам вдруг осознал однажды солнечным утром:)), что не помню точно, чем же отличается это самое EVERY от его брата EACH. Освежив свои знания и умения с помощью форумов активных языковедов и заядлых англо-филов, я все вспомнил. Смотрите:

Первое основное правило всех супер-правил: вы можете употреблять every или each и не бояться сделать большую ошибку, так как эти два местоимения очень схожи. То есть, вас поймут и не отругают, даже если вы вместо великого every впечатаете each. Такой подход сразу же снимает 90 процентов беспокойства, ибо никто не совершенен, и ошибаться человеку свойственно. Поэтому говорите и не бойтесь – лучше говорить быстро и иногда допускать мелкие ошибочки, чем говорить напряженно, судорожно подбирая правильные английские слов, и все равно ошибаться.

Теперь переходим к различию между местоимениями every и each.

Главное различие: слово EVERY, хоть обычно и переводится как “каждый”, означает “все” – то есть, мы делаем акцент на всей группе людей, или всех вещах в коробке, или всех днях в году, но говорим при этом не “ALL”, а “EVERY”. Например:

I love all seasons of the year. – Я люблю каждое (или все) времена года. А теперь смотрите: если я хочу сказать: “Я люблю каждое время года по-своему” – мы говорим:

I love each season in its own way. Или просто: I love each season of the year. – и наш читатель/слушатель понимает, что мы делаем акцент на каждом времени года, его индивидуальности.

Итак: местоимение EACH мы употребляем, когда подчеркиваем индивидуальные свойства какого-то предмета/человека и т.д.

Еще примеры:

He likes every girl in the city. – Ему нравится каждая (в смысле, все) девушка в городе.

He likes each girl in the city. – Ему нравится каждая (уникальная и неповторимая по-своему) девушка в городе.

Every artist is sensitive. – Каждый (то есть, все) художник чувствителен.

Each artist was given a unique diploma for partaking in the exhibition. – Каждому художнику (именно каждому индивидуальному художнику) выдали уникальный (уникальный для каждого) диплом об участии в выставке. В данном случае нежелательно говорить “Every artisi was given a unique diploma for partaking in the exhibition”, так как дипломы-то разные, и мы делаем на этом акцент.

Есть пару застывших фраз, где нужно употреблять именно то или иное местоимение. Например:

Every one of …

Each of …

То есть, пишем: Every one of us was happy (но не “each one of us was happy)

Each of the boys was invited to the party (но не “every of the boys was invited to the party).

Ну вот и вся основная разница. То есть, вы как автор решаете, употреблять ли EVERY или EACH – в зависимости от того смысла, который вы хотите донести.

Красивого вам английского!

Подготовка к IELTS Graph Description: существительное (noun) “DECREASE”

Оптимальные глаголы (verbs) и прилагательные (adjectives) для существительного DECREASE при описании графиков и таблиц.


dramatic decrease

There has been a dramatic decrease in the number of suicides among prisoners.

There was a dramatic decrease in the number of potential traffickers in the country in 1990.

A dramatic decrease in prices and an increase in the value of the local currency have been reported.

The information provided in the visual shows dramatic decrease in return on net assets during the period under consideration.

The funds  experienced a dramatic decrease in value during 2008 and did not recuperate until 2015.

In 1994 there was a dramatic decrease in the gross domestic product by two thirds.

The graph shows that certain countries in the region  have experienced a dramatic decrease in the number of cases of malaria.

As is shown, there has been a dramatic decrease in the production output of the CI (about 40%).

There was a dramatic decrease in the maximum permitted rate, which immediately dropped between 12 and 14 percentage points.


large decrease

The construction sector has sustained a large decrease (-9,4%).

Another 30% of the companies reported a stable situation, while the remaining 10% reported a large decrease in 2000.

There was a large decrease, 4.9%, in the participation of the 15-19 age group in unemployed women.

The weighted average employment rate exhibited a different trend, with a large decrease in the first part of the year and a small upswing in the second.

There has been a large decrease in the number of reported allegations involving military personnel, with 19 reported in 2012, as compared with 41 reported in both 2011 and 2010.

A large decrease in poverty, as a result of a 35% increase in employment, is projected to take place in 2020.

Both branches of industry demonstrated an equally large decrease (6.01 points) over six consecutive years (1999-2004).

There was also a large decrease in the number of fishing licences withdrawn (only 335 compared to 1,226 in 2004).

There was a large decrease in the horse population in the 1980s.

There can be seen a clear discrepancy between a large decrease in cultivation and a relatively small decrease in production.


sharp decrease

As the graph shows, in the early 1990s there was a sharp decrease in both passenger and freight traffic.

Data for 1990-2000 show a sharp decrease in disbursements between 1990 and 1993.

Since January 2017 and until the time of reporting, the rate of return showed a sharp decrease of 65 per cent compared with the same period in 2013.

November and December 2008 witnessed a sharp decrease in the quantity of goods, cash and personnel allowed into Gaza.

This current level, however, also represents a sharp decrease in the intake of female personnel, compared to that at the inception in 2002.

The excess of income over expenditures indicated a sharp decrease in net income over the same two bienniums of 11 per cent and 58 per cent, respectively.

This coincided with a sharp decrease in the market share of the exporting producers from the countries concerned, namely from 29.3 % to 12.4 %.

A sharp decrease in the number of irradiated dietary supplements is expected in 2025.

Given statistics point to a sharp decrease in exported volumes throughout the whole period.


significant decrease

In Western Europe there was a significant decrease in anthropogenic base cation emissions during the 1970s.

Interest rates started a significant decrease, after mild increases between May and September, and early in 1996 dropped to the level of early 1995.

During the 2012-2013 biennium, and particularly in 2012, UNICRI was impacted by a significant decrease in unearmarked contributions to the general-purpose fund.

Although that was a significant decrease, the overall number of companies registered in the British Virgin Islands remained about 410,000.

Unpaid peacekeeping assessments had risen steadily since 1990, despite a significant decrease in the level of peacekeeping activity.

There has been a significant decrease in food items in the besieged areas during the previous month, particularly infant milk.

Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka also saw a significant decrease in the incidence of poverty over the whole period.

In 2000, even the regions that had previously shown high fertility rates, experienced a significant decrease.

Throughout the reporting period, a significant decrease was observed in all kinds of incidents.

There had already been a significant decrease in mortality among the Yanomami, from over 200 deaths in 1992 to 131 in 1995.

There was a significant decrease in procurement, project management, finance and human resources matters in 2011 as compared to 2010.

Turnout for the elections in 2013 was at around 42 per cent of the 1.5 million registered voters, a significant decrease compared with the General National Congress elections of July 2012.

The situation changed, however, in 2010, with a significant decrease in the number of security incidents and attacks against humanitarian workers.

Therefore, a significant decrease (to zero) of the quantity used and the number of uses can be expected by 2020.


slight decrease

Only in the case of the humanities has there been a slight decrease in the number of women.

9-month data available for 1998 show a slight decrease in the number of road accidents and casualties (-0.6%).

Similarly, a slight decrease in criminal activities was noticed.

At 40 mg/kg, a slight decrease in hatchability, reduction in eggshell thickness and increase of percentage of cracked eggs is observed.

During 2001, a slight decrease to approximately US$ 5.5 per kilogram can be noted.

The graphic presents a peak in 1994-1996 followed by a slight decrease.

Compared with a similar period last year, there was a slight decrease, from 131 to 106, in the number of formal meetings.

The figure for economically active women stood at about 14 per cent in 1998, representing a slight decrease.

There has been a slight decrease in the number of women working full-time.

Mexico registered a slight decrease in heroin seizures (263 kg).

However, a slight decrease in the extrabudgetary resources available is foreseen for the biennium 2020-2021.

This represents a slight decrease from 31 cases involving 41 victims, including 12 minors, in the previous reported decade.


small decrease

small decrease of coarse PM levels can be observed in 2007 – 2008 compared with the period 2000 – 2006.

The June figure represents a small decrease from early May when the reported number of displaced persons was 2.6 million.

Though there was a small decrease in abuse of opioids in 2015, the long-term trend remained relatively stable.

Government secondary schools showed a small decrease from 12.6 to 12.4 students per teacher over the same period.

A small decrease is expected in HCFC emissions in 5 countries.

small decrease of coarse PM levels has been observed in 2007 – 2008 compared with the period 2000 – 2006.

There was, however, a small decrease in the income, a 5.4 per cent drop.

Regular resources income fell from 1996 to 1999, followed by small increases in 2000 and 2001, and a small decrease in 2002.

The small decrease in emissions from fuel combustion in 2010 was mainly due to the decrease in emissions from the manufacturing and “other” sector by 7 and 3 per cent respectively.

Delivery, overall, declined in 1998 by 7 per cent from the level in 1997, to slightly less than US$ 22 million, of which less than 37 per cent was directed towards the least developed countries, another small decrease from the previous year.

Compared with the original estimate of $389,900, there is a small decrease of $37,400 under these items.

As shown in the table, requirements for jointly financed security and safety were estimated at $9,302,700 before recosting, reflecting a small decrease of $2,700 as compared with the appropriation of $9,305,400 for the biennium 2000-2001.

The revised requirements amount to $1,556,600, reflecting a small decrease of $1,700.

The total figure for 1996 represents a small decrease from the end-1995 figure.

Generally, in 2008 a relatively small decrease (10-15%) in the M&A market took place – both in the number and value of deals – in comparison with 2007.


gradual decrease

According to the graph, the number of smuggled firearms has shown a trend of gradual decrease in the previous two years and has since been kept at a relatively low level.

As can be seen from the second table, in the indicated period, the education system witnessed a gradual decrease in student enrolment rate in elementary education.

A reversal trend in the monetary stance led to a gradual decrease in interbank money-market rates, which had shot up in September 2008.

Internal migration shows a long-term gradual decrease in the amount of moving, especially over longer distances.

With increasing age, there was a gradual decrease in the difference in life expectancy between males and females.

However, along with the economic decline, there has been a gradual decrease in enrolment and completion rates.

In 2010 there was an increase to 1250, followed by a gradual decrease.

Total employment reached a turning point in 2000, when the gradual decrease in the number of workers that was taking place since 1997 came to a halt.

The differences in employment rates and rates of activity of men and women were still very high, although there was a trend of their gradual decrease.

However, since 1997, the institute has experienced a gradual decrease in its voluntary contributions, which, with the exception of the upturn in 2005, continued into the biennium 2006-2007.

Over the last 10 years, however, there was a gradual decrease in the number of reported cases, with no incidents involving major organized criminal groups in 2001 and 2002.

As indicated in the report, there has occurred a gradual decrease in the number of marriages.


progressive decrease

The general trend shown in the chart has been towards a progressive decrease of all types of violations.

The graph shows high dropout rates among indigenous children, especially girls, and a progressive decrease in the number of indigenous students in secondary and higher education in the country.

According to the table, as of 50 years of age, men  suffer from a progressive decrease in the masculine hormone testosterone.
Notwithstanding the progressive decrease in inflation, real interest rates remained relatively high until the third quarter.
In 2002, millions of monarch butterflies died as the result of an intense cold wave, in  addition to the progressive decrease in forest coverage.
There has been a progressive decrease of EU beef exports to ECOWAS countries from a level of 54 000 tonnes in 1991 to only 1600 tonnes in 2000.

steady decrease

This figure represents a steady decrease compared with 2010.
Recent years have seen a steady decrease in the number of refugees in the country.
There has been a steady decrease in contributions receivable to $66.6 million in 2006, from $79.8 million in 2005 and $84.2 million in 2004.
According to the graph, the country was able to sustain an average annual growth rate of 3.5 per cent and to ensure a steady decrease of inflation from 53 per cent in 1996 to 6 per cent in 1998.
There has been a steady decrease in the number of reported casualties worldwide since 2006, when the number of reported casualties was 6,022.
There had been a steady decrease in hunger and malnutrition, and a steady rise in the Human Development Index throughout the period.
In the following years, a steady decrease in the unemployment rate was recorded.
The turnover rate for internationally recruited staff members continued its pattern of steady decrease during the next decade.
In the last decade, there was a steady decrease in the number of death penalties handed down by the Russian courts.
In Oceania, there has been a steady decrease in the abuse of opioids since the late 1990s, coinciding with reduced availability of heroin in the region.
In 1990s, a steady decrease in the natural increase and birth rate was observed.
There was a steady decrease in kidnappings, with a significant decline of 45 per cent between 2001 and 2002.
There was a significant increase in subsidies following the January 2010 earthquake and a steady decrease since 2012.
There has been a steady decrease in the effective population growth rate, from 0.75% in 2002 to 0.17% in 2007.
Maternal mortality has demonstrated an irregular pattern over the years, but has shown a steady decrease since 2002, with a total of 119 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births.
Infant mortality saw a steady decrease from 1991 of 43/1000 to 1998 of 22.9/1000.
The epidemiological profile has shown a steady decrease in the prevalence of HIV, which has dropped from 6.5 per cent in 1993 to 2.2 per cent in 2007, with a marked trend towards the female population.
The chart indicates a steady decrease in pilgrims in absolute numbers for the whole of Tajikistan: from approximately 5,000 in 2004 to 4,072 in 2005 and to 3,450 individuals in 2006.
The graph shows that a slow but steady decrease in the proportion of girls has taken place: from 47.6 per cent in 1988 to 44.4 per cent in 1997-98 (-3.2 per cent).
After 1991, there was a steady decrease in the coefficient to 0.3624 in 1995, except for 1994, when the estimate was 0.3816.

 corresponding decrease

 The corresponding decrease in global demand translated into a 6.6 per cent global trade rate of growth in 2011.
It can be seen that for every additional year of maternal education Chilean women received, there was a corresponding decrease in the maternal mortality rate of 29.3 per 100,000 live births.
From 2000 to 2010, Slovakia was increasing its nuclear generating capacity with the corresponding decrease in use of fossil fuels.
The estimated production of opium fell by only 10 per cent, from 7,700 tons in 2008 to 6,900 tons in 2009, in spite of the corresponding decrease in the area under opium poppy cultivation of 22 per cent.
The corresponding decrease in the special-purpose funds of the crime programme fund is projected to be from $75.3 million to $48.4 million.
This was a decrease of 6.1 percent from the number of cases requiring assistance in the 1997-1998 fiscal year, and a corresponding decrease in expenditures of 6.1 percent.

 show/report a decrease

The data from the table show a decrease in the number of children harmed in criminal offences against person.
In comparison with 1996, these figures show a decrease in unemployment among Arubans and a large increase among the foreign-born.
The chart shows a decrease in the fatality and injury numbers of 30 to 40 per cent over the last 20 years,
In percentage terms, all regions showed a decrease of around 20 per cent.
The data on the number of police officers show a decrease over the next decade.
Statistics report a decrease in certain categories of crime, such as kidnappings throughout the period.