Помещаем взаимосвязанные слова рядом. – Keep related words together.
Эта статья является первой из серии статей, посвященных грамотному и стильному написанию эссе на английском языке. Серия основана на знаменитом труде У. Странка “Элементы стиля”.
Данные статьи помогут вам писать действительно красивые, гармоничные, правильные эссе с точки зрения именно стиля письма. Это пригодится вам и в написании письма бизнес-партнеру, и в написании эссе на тестах IELTS, TOEFL, SAT, GMAT, CAE, CPE и др.
Красивого вам стиля письма на английском!
Keep related words together.
(В примерах неправильный вариант обычно размещается слева, а правильный – справа).
The position of the words in a sentence is the principal means of showing their relationship. The writer must therefore, so far as possible, bring together the words, and groups of words, that are related in thought, and keep apart those which are not so related.
The subject of a sentence and the principal verb should not, as a rule, be separated by a phrase or clause that can be transferred to the beginning.
|Wordsworth, in the fifth book of The Excursion, gives a minute description of this church.||In the fifth book of The Excursion, Wordsworth gives a minute description of this church.|
|Cast iron, when treated in a Bessemer converter, is changed into steel.||By treatment in a Bessemer converter, cast iron is changed into steel.|
The objection is that the interposed phrase or clause needlessly interrupts the natural order of the main clause. Usually, however, this objection does not hold when the order is interrupted only by a relative clause or by an expression in apposition. Nor does it hold in periodic sentences in which the interruption is a deliberately used means of creating suspense.
The relative pronoun should come, as a rule, immediately after its antecedent.
|There was a look in his eye that boded mischief.||In his eye was a look that boded mischief.|
|He wrote three articles about his adventures in Spain, which were published in Harper’s Magazine.||He published in Harper’s Magazine three articles about his adventures in Spain.|
|This is a portrait of Benjamin Harrison, grandson of William Henry Harrison, who became President in 1889.||This is a portrait of Benjamin Harrison, grandson of William Henry Harrison. He became President in 1889.|
If the antecedent consists of a group of words, the relative comes at the end of the group, unless this would cause ambiguity.
The Superintendent of the Chicago Division, who
|A proposal to amend the Sherman Act, which has been variously judged.||A proposal, which has been variously judged, to amend the Sherman Act.|
|A proposal to amend the much-debated Sherman Act.|
|The grandson of William Henry Harrison, who||William Henry Harrison’s grandson, who|
A noun in apposition may come between antecedent and relative, because in such a combination no real ambiguity can arise.
The Duke of York, his brother, who was regarded with hostility by the Whigs
Modifiers should come, if possible, next to the word they modify. If several expressions modify the same word, they should be so arranged that no wrong relation is suggested.
|All the members were not present.||Not all the members were present.|
|He only found two mistakes.||He found only two mistakes.|
|Major R. E. Joyce will give a lecture on Tuesday evening in Bailey Hall, to which the public is invited, on “My Experiences in Mesopotamia” at eight P. M.||On Tuesday evening at eight P. M., Major R. E. Joyce will give in Bailey Hall a lecture on “My Experiences in Mesopotamia.” The public is invited.|